Although stocks were small, the General bought some lengths of silk-brown, red and green. H Watson 5th Btn. Only 33rd Brigade was not originally part of an armoured division but was a tank brigade converted to an armoured brigade. The first commander of the Tank Corps was Hugh Elles. What Role did the Regiment have in World War 2? 1/6 West Surrey is the 1stBattalion of the territorial West Surrey Regiment. [48] The final change to the brigade and regiment was authorised on 18 January 1945, but was not implemented till May; it was to standardise all armour and tank brigades and regiments. A regiment had four squadrons, HQ, A, B and C. The HQ squadron contained, command tanks, a recce troop of 11 Stuarts, an AA troop of 8 AA Crusaders (the AA troops were disbanded after August 44). During the course of the war, four "hostilities-only" battalions were formed: the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th. [5] The formation of new battalions continued and, by December 1918, 26 had been created though only 25 battalions were equipped with tanks, as the 17th had converted to armoured cars in April 1918. [43], In May 1940, the armoured brigades became homogeneous and were reorganised; all now would contain 10 cruisers within the brigade headquarters, while the regimental headquarters would have four cruisers. 13th Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery. Canadian units converted to armoured regiments, in this new branch, were organized under the then current British war establishment for an armoured regiment, which called for the regiment to be organized, and consist of: a Regimental headquarters, of five officers and 12 other ranks, equipped with four cruiser tanks Similar structures would not be adopted by the other armoured divisions until after Operation Goodwood,[32] when Lieutenant-General Richard O’Connor ordered the Guards and 11th Armoured Divisions to organise themselves similarly. [6] With the preparations for war in the late 1930s, two more Regular Army battalions were formed: the 7th in 1937 and the 8th in 1938. Pre-war, there was a debate about the direction of how armoured forces would develop with the decision taken to have three types of tanks. 'The British Garrison Berlin 1945-1994', W. Durie, This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 05:38. An armoured division contained 4 armoured regiments, three equipped with Shermans, and the Recce Regt with Cromwells. The division was supported by a Pivot Group of two motorised infantry battalions and two artillery regiments. The brigade headquarters would contain four tanks but could vary depending on the situation, while the battalion headquarters would contain two infantry tanks and four light tanks. Anti-Tank Regiments (2 pounder, then 6 pounder, then 17 pounder anti-tank … Tanks were first used at the Battle of Flers–Courcelette in September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme in the First World War. Regiments of the British Army in World War II. The divisions operated from then on as two brigade groups; each of two combined arms teams, both made up of one tank regiment and one infantry battalion;[33] the armoured reconnaissance regiment was matched with the armoured brigade's motor battalion to provide the fourth group. The British Infantry Battalion, 1939 to 1940 In early 1940 the British Army sent the bulk of its recently mobilised units to France following the declaration of war against Germany. The American equipped regiments, totalling 44 tanks, were organised as such: four M3 Stuarts allocated to the regimental headquarters, which controlled three sabre squadrons; one squadron of four troops of four Stuarts and a headquarters with a further four Stuarts, and two squadrons composed of M3 Grants each consisting of three troops of three tanks and a squadron headquarters of a further three Grants. In most instances, the changes were made before or after their authorisation. The independent armoured brigades could in most cases trace their formation to an armoured division, 4th and 7th brigades to the 7th Armoured, 8th Brigade was part of 10th Armoured, before it was disbanded. Formerly known as the Tank Corps and the Royal Tank Corps, it is part of the Royal Armoured Corps. Royal Tank Regiment British Army. A tactical grouping of battalions is called a brigade. Field Marshal Sir Bernard Law Montgomery would frequently wear the regiment's beret, with his Field Marshal's badge sewn on next to the regimental cap badge, as it was more practical whilst travelling on a tank than either a formal peaked hat or the Australian slouch hat he previously wore. Totaling 36 x … I am happy to cover all costs, if you are a family member or can put me in touch with them, please get in touch. Today, it is the armoured regiment of the British Army's 12th Armoured Infantry Brigade. In April 1939, the Mobile Division was renamed the 1st Armoured Divisionand the Mobile Division (Egypt) was named the Armoured Division (E… [24] In the United Kingdom, the Brigade Group was not adopted but the Support Group was abolished and an infantry brigade was added to the division to replace the second armoured brigade. The same organisation was used for the infantry battalions of the infantry brigades of both Infantry and Armoured divisions. [27], During March 1944, further amendments were made; the additional troops allocated to the infantry brigade the year before were removed while, for the divisions allocated to the 21st Army Group, an Independent Machine Gun company was allocated to the division. The regiment has been in existence since at least the 17 th and 18 th centuries when it was the primary organizational unit for an army. The mixed regiments were laid out the same except with one squadron made up of Grants and two squadrons made up of Crusader tanks bringing the total to 48 tanks; 36 Crusaders, and 12 Grants. [45] The changes in late 1942 reverted the structure of the brigade and regiments to their 1941 layout, but also increased the regiment to 52 tanks, 4 anti-aircraft tanks, 54 officers and 600 other ranks. Anti-Tank Regiment, 4 batteries, each of 3 troops of 4 guns. The 9th Royal Tank Regiment (9 RTR) was an armoured regiment of the British Army active during the Second World War. Between the wars some efforts were made to make the Australian Army organisation the same as the Brits. The official regimental motto is Fear Naught. WWII British Infantry Battalion TO&E (or TOE) Below is a 1:1 schematic image of a WWII British Infantry battalion TO&E (Table of Organisation and Equipment, TOE). [4] He also notes that the reforms that took place in 1940 forfeited yet another opportunity to transform the tank-heavy armoured divisions into a balanced all-arms force. 2nd Royal Tank Regiment - 44 Challenger 2s, 22 CVR(T) Scimitars. [18] The support group provided whatever support the armoured brigades needed to the operation in hand, being able to provide motorised infantry, field artillery, anti-tank artillery or light anti-aircraft artillery as needed. Formerly known as the Tank Corps and the Royal Tank Corps, it is part of the Royal Armoured Corps. Over 40% of the soldiers of the British Army in NWE were in the artillery. Royal Tank Regiment British Army. (Source: Stanton, Shelby L.: Order of Battle US Army World War II, p. 15-20) The 17 pdr (76.2 mm/3 in) Archer, built over surplus Valentine chassis, was a British SPG tank destroyer. Royal Tank Regiment . L/Cpl. Prime Minister Winston Churchill was ferried across the Rhine in a Buffalo from 'C' Squadron, 11RTR. This is a TOE at 1 model to 4 real vehicles scale based on the excellent info at bayonentstrength. Some had their main guns replaced with a dummy gun to allow additional radio equipment and a map table to be installed. British Armoured Regiment . The armoured regiments of the British Army during the Second World War saw significant evolvement and development during the six years of conflict. [5], Following the outbreak of war, the headquarters of the 2nd Armoured Division was activated on 15 December 1939. 58 Company : No. In January 1945, the final change was made to the tank brigade; they were to be redesignated armoured brigades and be reorganised along to the final armour brigade structure as authorised on 18 January.[50]. Never acted as a division. The formation of the Royal Tank Regiment followed the invention of the tank. No change in uniform was possible during the war, but after a prolonged argument with the War Office, the black beret was approved by King George V on 5 March 1924. [35], In 1939, the armoured division comprised 9,442 men all ranks, this increased to 14,964 men all ranks by 1944;[36] however, of this latter figure, the division had a combat strength of around 7,000 men with only 3,400 of these men being in the division's nine rifle companies compared to a combat strength of around 5,000 men in the American armoured division, of which 3,000 were in the rifle companies. The Mobile Division, supported Territorial Army Motor divisions each of two motorised infantry brigades supported by two artillery regiments but no tanks, was to then to create a breakthrough. The regiments were to be equipped with M4 Shermans as they became available. THE GERMAN WORLD WAR II ORGANIZATIONAL SERIES 1/I 01.09.39 Mechanized Army Formations and Waffen-SS Formations (3rd Revised Edition) 1/II-1 01.09.39 1 st and 2 nd Welle Army Infantry Divisions 1/II-2 01.09.39 3 rd and 4 th Welle Army Infantry Divisions 1/III 01.09.39 Higher Headquarters — Mechanized GHQ Units — Static Units (2nd Revised Edition) Thus, any headdress with a peak was entirely unsuitable. All Sherman equipped units, including the 7th Armoured Division's sabre squadrons but excluding the Armoured Reconnaissance Regiments, were equipped with Sherman Fireflys; 36 were generally provided to each brigade, enough to equip each troop with one. Such sticks came to have a new and more important use with the introduction of tanks, which often became 'bogged' on battlefields, particularly in Flanders. With the Firefly the British and Canadians had a weapon to compare with the powerful German anti-tank guns. [19], Like the division, the armoured brigade went through nine changes to its basic organisation, while the tank brigade went through four changes before a complete conversion of its role. For various reasons it did not work terribly well. This division consisted of three infantry regiments (about 2,000 men each), o… [18] Following the Battle of France, the Army realised that mixing light and cruiser tanks in the same brigade had been a mistake and that there were insufficient infantry and support units within the division. [25], Prior to the Battle of Alam el Halfa, in August–September 1942, the armoured divisions in North Africa were again authorised to change; the armoured division became the basic battle formation again and the Brigade Groups were reorganised as they had previously. On 25 May 1939, the Army decided that the organisation should change to an armoured division of a light and a heavy armoured brigade, each of three armoured regiments, totalling 349 tanks; 159 light cruisers, 108 light tanks, 58 heavy cruisers, and 24 close support tanks. [3] They were at first considered artillery, and crews received artillery pay. [40], Historian David French states that the Army's intention had been to create balanced all-arms formations; however, following the formation of their first armoured divisions, they had instead created tank-heavy divisions with too few infantry or supporting arms. [47], The initial April 1938 Tank Brigade establishment was for the brigade to muster 175 tanks; each of its three battalions comprising 57 tanks, 29 officers, and 484 other ranks. The light armoured brigade was to be composed of three light armoured regiments each consisting of 22 light cruisers, 36 light tanks, 24 officers, and 492 other ranks. [6] On 18 October 1923,[7] it was officially given the title Royal making it the Royal Tank Corps (RTC) by Colonel-in-Chief King George V. It was at this time that the motto, "Fear Naught", the black beret, and the unit badge were adopted. In the latter half of 1938, six TA infantry battalions were converted to tank battalions; with a further six created in 1939 following the "duplication" of the TA.[6]. Eight of the Regular Army companies were later converted into independent light tank companies; all twelve companies had been disbanded by the outbreak of the Second World War. Later in the campaign, as more Fireflys became available, the troops were issued with two. The armoured Brigade Group would have three armoured regiments, a motor battalion, an artillery regiment (including an anti-tank battery of 16 guns; either 2-pounders or 6-pounders) as well as its three batteries of 25-pounder gun-howitzers, a light anti-aircraft battery of 18 guns, a field squadron of Royal Engineers and various other administration units. The Support Group's motorised infantry battalions were transferred to the armoured brigades, each receiving one, while the Support Group was given a lorried infantry battalion, increasing the infantry strength of the division to three battalions. British Armoured Car Regiment TO&E (WWII) The British Armoured Car Regiment was initially intended as a Corps level unit, but by mid 1944 they were pretty permanantly attached to the Armoured Divisions.There was a different organisation for the Recce Regts attached to Infantry Divisions.. This most apt interpretation of the colours was suggested by Colonel Fuller. [47] By June 1944, the sabre squadrons in North West Europe were operating four tank troops. In particular, the vision apertures in a tank were so small that it was necessary to keep the eyes very close to them in order to get even a limited vision. Royal Tank Regiment . The Support Group would be disbanded, while an armoured car regiment would be added to the division. [10] Four more divisions were activated during 1941; the 11th Armoured Divisions on 9 March,[11] and the Guards Armoured Division on 17 June. [49] On 7 April 1941, the first change was made; the formations would drop army terminology and adopt cavalry terms. Nothing was done about it until just before the Battle of Cambrai in 1917 when General Elles, wanting some distinguishing mark for his tank, went into a shop to buy material for a flag. No changes were made to the layout of the regiments; however, three tanks were removed from the brigade headquarters, two anti-aircraft tanks would be added and eight Observation Post tanks would also be allocated to the brigade. Artillery Observation Post (OP) tanks belonged to the division's artillery regiments. They took with them the larger part of the Army's motorised transport, infantry and cruiser tanks, and the … [6] In 1933, the 6th Battalion, RTC was formed in Egypt by combining the personnel of the 3rd and 5th Regular Army Armoured Car Companies. [17], On 2 August 2014, 1RTR and 2RTR amalgamated at Bulford, and for the first time in its history the Royal Tank Regiment became a "Single Battalion" Regiment. Both Infantry and Armoured Divisions had their own organic artillery, and there were significant amounts of Corps and Army level artillery assets. [17], When first formed, the Mobile Division had six light tank regiments in two cavalry brigades and a tank brigade of three medium regiments. The heavy armoured brigade, laid out the same as the light armoured brigade, had 157 tanks, with each regiment made up of 26 light cruisers, 15 heavy cruisers, 8 close support tanks, 30 officers and 573 other ranks. The first formation formed had been the Mobile Division in October 1937 followed a year later, in the wake of the Munich Crisis, by the Mobile Division (Egypt). Elements of 1RTR were deployed to Afghanistan in 2002 and both regiments were involved in the invasion of Iraq, with the 2RTR battlegroup involved in taking Basra. At the start of the Second World War, in September 1939, the British Army already possessed two armoured divisions; a further nine would be raised during the war, of which only two would not see service. Both regiments continued deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan, with the final tour to Afghanistan taking place in 2013. The regimental colours are Brown, Red and Green. The two artillery regiments, the anti-tank regiment and light anti-tank regiment were placed under the command of an artillery headquarters unit while additional administration units were attached to the division. [34], The final authorised change came in February 1945, but was not implemented until May 1945, following the end of the war in Europe; the division would retain the organisation approved in March 1944, but the armoured reconnaissance regiment would be converted into a fourth armoured regiment but not placed within either brigade. Tank Destroyers were organised into fours. L/Cpl.PF Whitelegg served with the 50th Btn. If you have any unwanted photographs, documents or items from the First or Second World War, please do not destroy them. On 4 April 1939, the Royal Tank Corps was renamed the Royal Tank Regiment and became a wing of the newly created Royal Armoured Corps. Administrative formation for specialist vehicles. The 1st Royal Tank Regiment also operated a small number of Challenger 2 tanks for training and demonstration. [27], The wearing of black overalls is a custom reserved to the Regiment by Material Regulations for the Army, volume 3, Pamphlet No 4 (Code 13251). Wanted: Digital copies of Group photographs, Scrapbooks, Autograph books, photo albums, newspaper clippings, letters, postcards and ephemera relating to WW2.We would like to obtain digital copies of any documents or photographs relating to WW2 you may have at home. [23], Arras Counter Attack, Calais 1940, St. Omer-La Bassée, Somme, Sidi Barrani, Beda Fomm, Sidi Suleiman, Tobruk 1941, Sidi Rezegh 1941, Belhamed, Gazala, Cauldron, Knightsbridge, Defence of Alamein Line, Alam el Halfa, El Alamein, Mareth, Akarit, Fondouk, El Kourzia, Medjez Plain, Tunis, Sangro, Salerno, Volturno Crossing, Garigliano Crossing, Anzio, Advance to Florence, Gothic Line, Coriano, Lamone Crossing, Rimini Line, Argenta Gap, Odon, Caen, Bourguébus Ridge, Mont Pincon, Falaise, Nederrijn, Scheldt, Venlo Pocket, Rhineland, Rhine, Bremen. On 5 July 2012, it was announced that the two operational regiments, the 1st Royal Tank Regiment (1RTR) and the 2nd Royal Tank Regiment (2RTR), would be amalgamated in 2014 to form a single regiment, to be called simply The Royal Tank Regiment. [3] In April 1939, the Mobile Division was renamed the 1st Armoured Division[4] and the Mobile Division (Egypt) was named the Armoured Division (Egypt) on the outbreak of war, before being renamed the 7th Armoured Division on 16 February 1940. Known as the Infantry Division 1944, this new formation had a strength of 12,772 men as opposed to the 17,734 soldiers of a division in 1939, although its firepower had actually increased. From 1943, the lack of available replacements for the Wehrmacht began to become apparent, reducing the division’s TOE strength and introducing a new organization. A 2-pdr anti-tank gun of 44 Battery, 13th Anti-Tank Regiment, 2nd Division in the snow near Beuvry, 15 February 1940. It was part of the Royal Tank Regiment, itself part of the Royal Armoured Corps. The tank establishment was increased to 278 tanks; 214 cruisers, 34 anti-aircraft tanks and 30 close support tanks. They initially enlisted for six years with the colours and a further six years with the reserve. [27], Hunting Rose (Pipes and Drums kilts and plaids), 40th (The King's) Battalion, Royal Tank Corps, 41st (Oldham) Battalion, Royal Tank Corps, 42nd (7th (23rd London Regiment) East Surrey Regiment) Battalion, Royal Tank Corps, 43rd (6th (City) Battalion, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers) Battalion, Royal Tank Corps, 45th (Leeds Rifles) Battalion, Royal Tank Corps, 46th (Liverpool Welsh) Battalion, Royal Tank Corps, 47th (Oldham) Battalion, Royal Tank Corps, 51st (Leeds Rifles) Battalion, Royal Tank Corps, Odon, Caen, Bourguébus Ridge, Mont Pincon, Falaise, "Army – Question for Ministry of Defence", "With the Tanks – I. Anatomy and Habitat", "Modernising to face an unpredictable future: Transforming the British Army, July 2012", "Army Takes Command of Military's Counter Chemical Team", "Home Page – The Royal Tank Regiment Association", Organisation of units under Army 2020 Refine, Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Royal_Tank_Regiment&oldid=997986170, Military units and formations established in 1917, Military units and formations of the United Kingdom in the Korean War, Regiments of the British Army in World War II, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Dreadnaught – Challenger 2 armoured squadron, Egypt – Headquarters, Command, and Reconnaissance squadron, Falcon – CBRN reconnaissance squadron (under. The new regiment is titled the Royal Tank Regiment. 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