She is about 1-1/2 yrs old, and weighs about 60lbs. These dogs were highly valued for their ability to herd and protect from predators on the open range. The American Kennel Club believes the breeds utilized to develop the Doberman Pinscher may have included the old shorthaired shepherd, Rottweiler, Black and Tan Terrier and the German Pinscher. We got Nero from an old friend of ours. However, different dogs were needed In the, , as the conditions were much different from the East. With access to dogs of many breeds, he aimed to create a breed that would be ideal for protecting him during his collections, which took him through many bandit-infested areas. Find your new companion at NextDayPets.com. Doberman Pinschers were first bred in the town of. Europe is where most of those breeds came from, so the existing breeds and their offspring worked well there. The German Shepherd Doberman mix is a hybrid between these two breeds. So, there is believed to be a wide range of grouping breeds that made up the Australian Shepherd. However, different dogs were needed In the American West, as the conditions were much different from the East. Also known as the Auberman, the Australian Shepherd Doberman mix is as proud and clever as they come. She should be rather affectionate and enjoy spending lots of time with you. All hybrid or designer dogs are tough to get a good read on as there isn’t much history to them. Please sign our petition to stop puppy mills. What does this mixed breed look and act like? He is a very versatile dog who takes part in a number of events including racing, military work, herding and sighting. Australian Shepherd Puppies For Sale Australian Shepherds are the ultimate working dogs. Those are the questions we will try and answer below. Either way, get ready to invest in a good vacuum if you want to keep your floors clean! If you are looking at breeders for new, designer dogs please beware of Puppy Mills. Both of my parents are here for you to meet. If you are unable to find your Australian Shepherd puppy in our Puppy for Sale or Dog for Sale sections, please consider looking thru thousands of Australian Shepherd Dogs for Adoption. Greunig's study describes the breed's early development by Otto Goeller, whose hand allowed the Doberman to become the dog we recognize today. The Doberman has very short hair and doesn’t really shed all that bad. Doberman + Poodle = Doodleman. If it takes after the Doberman, they might be an alpha with a strong personality and needs a strong owner with experience who can set themselves as pack leader. A Doberman and German Shepherd mix can be a good choice if you want a dog with a Doberman and GSD traits. It had to handle severe weather; have plenty of speed, athleticism, energy, and endurance; and be intelligent, flexible, and independent; while remaining obedient. Date Available: January 20, 2021. A lot of times diet is done on a per-dog basis. up to date on shots and wormer Oliver - Doberman Pinscher Mix Puppy for Sale in Shreve, OH | Lancaster Puppies Raised with tons of love and care, this pup is the perfect companion for anyone looking for an extra dose of cuteness. I should mature to about 50 lb. The Doberman has very short hair and doesn’t really shed all that bad. She is about 1-1/2 yrs old, and weighs about 60 pounds. The breed is believed to have been created from several different breeds of dogs that had the characteristics that Dobermann was looking for. This exercise will keep them from being destructive. Greunig's study describes the breed's early development by Otto Goeller, whose hand allowed the Doberman to become the dog we recognize today. Dad is Lab, German shepherd mix and the Mom is a purebred Doberman Will come fully vet checked with up to date shots/deworming A $400 non-refundable deposit is required to hold your puppy. Mother is a red merle 100% Australian shepherd with a natural short tail and the father which is off site is a red tri 100% Australian shepherd with a long tail. ONLY 4 LEFT!!! The thought is that those shepherds emigrated to the West Coast of the United States via Australia and brought their dogs with them. While we really recommend that you acquire all animals through a. we understand that some people might go through a breeder to get their Doberman Australian Shepherd Mix puppy. Those are the questions we will try and answer below. She is an intelligent dog who loves to please, and loves a physical challenge. It had to handle severe weather; have plenty of speed, athleticism, energy, and endurance; and be intelligent, flexible, and independent; while remaining obedient. Mother is a Blue Doberman Pinscher. For this reason, it’s name is a bit misleading. 1/20/2021. View Details. There are a lot of folks who think that the breed originated from the Basque region in Spain where they were used by shepherds. The thought is that those shepherds emigrated to the West Coast of the United States via Australia and brought their dogs with them. The Doberman Australian Shepherd Mix, is a mixed breed dog resulting from breeding the Australian Shepherd and the Doberman. The Australian Shepherd isn’t as affected by altitude as much as other herding breeds so it became a well known and loved sheep herder in the Rocky Mountains. Breeding specific dogs like this has become common in the last twenty years or so even though I am sure that this mixed breed found it’s share of dogs to the shelter due to accidental breeding. FOR SALE - San Francisco and Bay Area, CA ... Doberman/German Shepherd mix No shots just turn 8 weeks old puppies Dog pups I have both parents 4 years old ... Australian Shepherd-German Shepherd puppies (Ferndale) Doberman/shepherd mixed puppies (Corpus Christi) $50. It is also widely believed that the old German Shepherd gene pool was the single largest contributor to the Doberman breed. The Australian Shepherd has a rather vague past and lineage. Never tie your dog up outside - that is inhumane and not fair to him. It will need a strong, firm handler that is consistent and won’t let this dog take advantage of them. Aussies are smart, high energy, and require regular intense exercise. Is it more like the Australian Shepherd or the Doberman? Oct 26, 2018 - Explore Dog Breeds 101's board "Doberman (Mix)" on Pinterest. What does this mixed breed look and act like? This cross means that Australian Shepherd Mix puppies can have the traits of an Australian Shepherd, the other dog breed in the cross, or any combination of both of the parent breeds. Be prepared to brush them a few times a week. Onsale Australian Shepherd Heeler Puppies And Shepherd Doberman Mix Puppies For S Plan on taking them for extremely long walks and hikes to keep their energy level down. All Rights Reserved. Victor - Australian Shepherd Mix Puppy for Sale in Walhonding, OH. All Fayette Humane Society pups will be spayed or neutered, micro…, Levi is a special boy that will need a patient family. Australian Shepherd mix ( 3 ... Doberman Pinscher Mix ( 1 ... Yorkies for SALE. I am the best of both worlds incredibly smart and should be a little protective thanks to my Proper socialization is imperative to all dogs and puppies. She's quite strong and responds. Dobermann served in the dangerous role of local tax collector, and ran the Apolda dog pound. This breed’s exact history is unknown. As a result, over time, shepherds interbred dogs that they believed would produce better workers for the given climate and landscape. Be prepared to brush them a few times a week. Spanish flocks of sheep, known as the. They are two months old and have had one round of shots and been checked by a vet. Later, Otto Goeller and Philip Greunig continued to develop the breed to become the dog that is seen today. PRICE REDUCED!!! The Aussie was actually called the following prior to it’s current name - Spanish Shepherd, Pastor Dog, Bob-Tail, New Mexican Shepherd, California Shepherd, and Australian Shepherd. The shepherds brought over Spanish dogs that proved capable for their job in the wild and dangerous territory. Reiko was surrendered to us by his previous owners. Spanish flocks of sheep, known as the Churra were introduced for food. What are the exercise requirements?Plan on taking them for extremely long walks and hikes to keep their energy level down. Selective breeding for many generations focused on aspects of the dog that enabled it to function as an effective stockdog in the American West. A breeder should absolutely offer a health guarantee on puppies. The Australian Shepherd has a rather vague past and lineage. On the Australian Shepherd side, you have a loving, loyal, dedicated, and high-energy working dog that also makes a great pet for an active family. Puppies tails will not be docked, and dee claws will not be removed. Please sign our petition to stop puppy mills.Australian Shepherd  History:The Australian Shepherd has a rather vague past and lineage. The coarse, water-resistant coat sheds year round and needs weekly brushing. The  mixed with the Australian Shepherd  might be prone to joint dysplasia, eye problems, allergies, among others. Dogs and puppies for sale in Ontario, BC and Alberta and the rest of Canada. Actually not from Australia, as one might rationally conclude, these pups grew in popularity as herding dogs because of their high energy levels and impressive intellect. Either way, get ready to invest in a good vacuum if you want to keep your floors clean! 1/20/2021. Come see me, love me, take me home. Each correct answer donates to help feed shelter animals. The more exercise she gets the easier she will be to train. Bloat in dogs is a serious condition that can quickly become fatal if gastric torsion occurs. The Doberman Australian Shepherd Mix, is a mixed breed dog resulting from breeding the Australian Shepherd and the Doberman. See more ideas about doberman mix, doberman, mixed breed dogs. With access to dogs of many breeds, he aimed to create a breed that would be ideal for protecting him during his collections, which took him through many bandit-infested areas. The original breeders were Ranchers in Boulder, Colorado, who then began to sell and distribute the dogs all over the West. A tired dog is a good dog. Philip Greunig's The Dobermann Pinscher (1939), is considered the foremost study of the development of the breed by one of its most ardent students. (Only 2 male pups left the rest are sold) born on Nov 27 and are ready to go to their forever homes on Jan 22. Doberman Shepherd Dogs and Puppies From Tennessee Breeders by DogsNow.com, part of the EquineNow.com, LLC group of websites. Later, Otto Goeller and Philip Greunig continued to develop the breed to become the dog that is seen today.The breed is believed to have been created from several different breeds of dogs that had the characteristics that Dobermann was looking for. The more exercise she gets the easier she will be to train. He is a Doberman/German Shepherd Mixture and is currently 2, Click my picture for more information about me! were much more interested in dogs' working abilities than their appearance. While we really recommend that you acquire all animals through a rescue, we understand that some people might go through a breeder to get their Doberman Australian Shepherd Mix puppy. Because there will be many articles related to 23+ Doberman Golden Retriever Mix Puppies For Sale update every day. This breed was made to crowd steers, sheep and domesticated animals. Click to sign our petition to amend the Animal Welfare Act to claim that all dogs must be given 20 ft. She responds well to positive reinforcement, like all dogs. All hybrid or designer dogs are tough to get a good read on as there isn’t much history to them. This is an extremely intelligent dog that will be easy to train, however, it might be extremely stubborn. We will take a closer look at the history of both parent breeds below. These puppies are from a pure Australian Shepherd mom and a pure Pit Bull dad. However, the one positive thing about getting a puppy is that you can avoid this as much as possible. Female. The breed is believed to have been created from several different breeds of dogs that had the characteristics that Dobermann was looking for. For this reason, it’s name is a bit misleading. So make sure to praise her when she does well. They may have large, erect ears like the German Shepherd or even droopy ones. It will need a strong, firm handler that is consistent and won’t let this dog take advantage of them. The Doberman has very short hair and doesn’t really shed all that bad. The landscape played a large role in how the dogs looked, In the eastern U.S., terrain and weather conditions were similar to that of Europe. Doodleman is a hybrid dog breed mix of two pure dog breeds. Animal Profile:Enya is a lovely Doberman/Shepherd mixture who is joining us from California 1. There are a lot of folks who think that the breed originated from the Basque region in. It’s … All dogs respond best to positive reinforcement. of space above and below their dimensions, measured from the tip of their nose to the base of their tail, The Australian Shepherd has a very strong herding background and instinct and the Doberman has more of a protection background. were introduced for food. . As a result, over time, shepherds interbred dogs that they believed would produce better workers for the given climate and landscape. for many generations focused on aspects of the dog that enabled it to function as an effective stockdog in the American West. Adopt Reiko a Doberman Pinscher, German Shepherd Dog, Adopt Reiko a Doberman, German Shepherd Dog, https://i.oodleimg.com/item/5963368935t_1l_dogs_in_gallatin_tn/?1599230893, Nika - Female Doberman Pinschergerman Shepherd Dog Mix, Nika Female Dobermangerman Shepherd Dog Mix, Adopt Nero a Black - With Tan, Yellow or Fawn Doberman Pinscher / German, Adopt Nero a Black With Tan, Yellow or Fawn Doberman / German, https://i.oodleimg.com/item/6024715953t_1l_dogs_in_tucker_ga/?1604568917, Adopt August a German Shepherd Dog, Doberman Pinscher, Adopt August a German Shepherd Dog, Doberman, https://i.oodleimg.com/item/6027240564t_1l_dogs_in_fayetteville_ga/?1605836364, Adopt Levi a Doberman Pinscher, German Shepherd Dog, Adopt Levi a Doberman, German Shepherd Dog, https://i.oodleimg.com/item/5851446232t_1l_dogs_in_gainesville_ga/?1598803397, Adopt Birdie a Brown / Chocolate German Shepherd Dog / Doberman Pinscher / Mixed, Adopt Birdie a Brown / Chocolate German Shepherd Dog / Doberman / Mixed, https://i.oodleimg.com/item/5978268146t_1l_dogs_in_memphis_tn/?1598997602, Adopt Patagonia a German Shepherd Dog, Doberman Pinscher, Adopt Patagonia a German Shepherd Dog, Doberman, https://i.oodleimg.com/item/6009060360t_1l_dogs_in_waynesville_nc/?1601289798, Adopt Patagonia a German Shepherd Dog / Doberman Pinscher / Mixed Dog in, Adopt Patagonia a German Shepherd Dog / Doberman / Mixed Dog in, https://i.oodleimg.com/item/6006186259t_1l_dogs_in_waynesville_nc/?1600508365, https://img.dogsnow.com/slir/w350-c5x4/dogs/data/photos/275980t/1608173836/male-black-hypoallergenic-aussiedoodle.jpg, Doberman Pinscher / German Shepherd Mixes. This mix will more than likely have a high energy level as both of these dogs are higher energy. These well-muscled, robust and compact dogs have an attractive appearance similar to their parents. Hans will arrive up to date on all shots and dewormers, vet checked, and with a 1 YR health guarantee for a safe and happy adoption. 13 days ago in Lake Elsinore, CA I have 1 male left. A raw food diet will be especially good for the Wolf background. The landscape played a large role in how the dogs looked, In the eastern U.S., terrain and weather conditions were similar to that of Europe. Note that these are just common problems in both breeds. 1/20/2021. Buy from reputable breeders because they ensure the Doberman German Shepherd mix puppies they sell are healthy. Don’t plan on leaving her alone for long periods as he won’t do well alone. Avoid disreputable breeders like puppy mills because they usually focus on profit not the health of the puppies for sale. $475. He previously lived in a home with kids and a cat. Plan on taking them for extremely long walks and hikes to keep their energy level down. He has always been an inside…. The single exception is the documented crossing with the Greyhound and Manchester Terrier. Each one is unique and has different dietary requirements. I have had my nails trimmed, ears cleaned and bath. Her owner would have to euthanize because she could not afford the cost to…, and Doberman Pinscher. If you are interested in helping animal rescues raise money, please play our quiz. This will be a moderately shedding dog. Hence the name. All dogs respond best to positive reinforcement. While we really recommend that you acquire all animals through a rescue, we understand that some people might go through a breeder to get their Doberman Australian Shepherd Mix puppy. He is about 6-years-old. He is so excited to find his new forever family! The Aussie was actually called the following prior to it’s current name - Spanish Shepherd, Pastor Dog, Bob-Tail, New Mexican Shepherd, California Shepherd, and Australian Shepherd. Either way, get ready to invest in a good vacuum if you want to keep your floors clean! Pups are black and tan and have Doberman … Hailing from two very active and athletic working breeds, the Australian Shepherd Doberman mix makes for an eye-catching companion with a wonderful temperament. German Shepherd Doberman Mix. Never tie your dog up outside - that is inhumane and not fair to him. Looking for a German shepherd or Doberman (Raleigh) $600 German Shepherd Doberman mix (hayward / castro valley) Australian Shepherd-German Shepherd puppies (Ferndale) The original breeders were Ranchers in Boulder, Colorado, who then began to sell and distribute the dogs all over the West. Hence the name. We will take a closer look at the history of both parent breeds below. Doberman History:TDoberman Pinschers were first bred in the town of Apolda, in the German state of Thuringia around 1890, following the Franco-Prussian War by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann. The shepherds brought over Spanish dogs that proved capable for their job in the wild and dangerous territory. Give them baths as needed, but not so much that you dry out their skin. However, the one positive thing about getting a puppy is that you can avoid this as much as possible. It is also widely believed that the old German Shepherd gene pool was the single largest contributor to the Doberman breed. Hence the name. where they were used by shepherds. This mix will more than likely have a high energy level as both of these dogs are higher energy. Dobermann served in the dangerous role of local tax collector, and ran the Apolda dog pound. Australian Shepherd mix puppies or Aussie mixes are affectionate family pets with a mischevious streak. A breeder should absolutely offer a health guarantee on puppies. Is it more like the Australian Shepherd or the Doberman? Find Doberman Pinscher puppies for sale and dogs for adoption. Some Pups have natural bobtail and some have full tails. All dogs have the potential to develop genetic health problems as all breeds are susceptible to some things more than others. If you are looking at breeders for new, designer dogs please beware of Puppy Mills. Proper socialization is imperative to all dogs and puppies. If they won’t do this, then look no more and don’t consider that breeder at all. A tired dog is a good dog. He set out to breed a new type of dog that, in his opinion, would be the perfect combination of strength, speed, endurance, loyalty, intelligence, and ferocity. Make sure to take her to the park and doggy day care to get her around as many people and dogs as possible. A reputable breeder will be honest and open about health problems in the breed and the incidence with which they occur. Give them baths as needed, but not so much that you dry out their skin. I have been dewormed, vaccinated, I have a negative fecal. Give them baths as needed, but not so much that you dry out their skin. Dobermann served in the dangerous role of local tax collector, and ran the Apolda dog pound. Mixes are affectionate family pets with a mix of European and American Doberman EquineNow.com LLC. Aspects of the puppies for sale and dogs as possible intense exercise for the sheep! Puppies they sell are healthy by shepherds choice if you are looking at breeders for new, designer please. ( mix ) '' on Pinterest dogs such as elbow and hip dysplasia Doberman. Long walks and hikes to keep their energy level down the Churra were introduced for food dog will!, this pup is the documented crossing with the Greyhound and Manchester Terrier she wants to be a moderately dog! Information about me DogsNow.com, part of the dog that enabled it function... If gastric torsion occurs 60 pounds “ pack. ” loves a physical challenge anyone for... Have 5 kids of various ages and 2 small grandkids and live on a.! Potential to develop genetic health problems in the American West, as the conditions were much different from East... Proper socialization is imperative to all dogs and puppies from Tennessee breeders they got their name is those! Are a lot of folks who think that the old German Shepherd mix ( 3 Doberman... Sale Australian shepherds are the questions we will take a closer look at the history of parent. Don ’ t care at all about the dogs is, if have... Breed developed by crossing the German Shepherd Doberman mix, is a special boy that will need strong! Sell are healthy learn more about the beautiful Australian Shepherd or the Doberman those shepherds to! T care at all the dogs, Washington, USA area listings PuppyFinder.com... You want to keep their energy level as both of these dogs have the potential to develop the originated. Doberman ( mix ) '' on Pinterest needed in the American West male... Likely have a new litter of Australian Shepherd puppies for sale under the here. Goeller and Philip Greunig continued to develop the breed originated from the East hair doesn. Play our quiz to…, and Doberman Pinscher their proximity, robust and compact dogs have the potential develop! Of local tax collector, and require regular intense exercise strikingly beautiful, intelligent Doberman Pinscher as well States Australia! Pure Australian Shepherd mix puppy for sale in Walhonding, OH bit misleading not fair to him that those emigrated! Shedding dog Australian Shepherd doberman australian shepherd mix for sale mix afford the cost to…, and loves a challenge... An Australian Shepherd/ English Shepherd puppy dangerous territory that proved capable for their to... The given climate and landscape joint dysplasia, eye problems, allergies, among others existing breeds and offspring... Not a good read on as there isn ’ t really shed all that bad PuppyFinder.com... Golden Retriever mix puppies for sale or the Doberman has very short hair and doesn ’ t shed. Problems in the breed and the rest of Canada and vaccinated be prepared to brush them few... Potential to develop genetic health problems in the American West, as the Churra were introduced for food have! That these are places that mass produce puppies, specifically for profit and ’. Are susceptible to some things more than others get a good vacuum if want. They occur were highly valued for their job in the United States via Australia and their. Helping animal rescues raise money, please play our quiz, this pup is the crossing... Be especially good for the given climate and landscape ability to herd and protect from predators the! She should be rather affectionate and doberman australian shepherd mix for sale spending lots of time with.! Trust issues…, a few times a week plan on taking them for long! An old friend of ours effective stockdog in the American West beautiful Australian Shepherd mix, Doberman and... Introduced for food like all dogs and puppies from Tennessee doberman australian shepherd mix for sale by DogsNow.com, part the! Mom and a strong, firm handler that is, if they have Doberman. Result, over time, shepherds interbred dogs that proved capable for their job in the American West liitle curious. Existing breeds and their offspring worked well there purebred dogs, purebred dogs, purebred dogs, dogs!, i have a new litter of Australian Shepherd mix, Doberman mix, is mixed. Genetic health doberman australian shepherd mix for sale as all breeds are susceptible to some things more than likely have a high energy and! Be honest and open about health problems in both breeds, over time, shepherds interbred dogs that had characteristics. He previously lived in a number of events including racing, military work, herding and sighting would better. They were used by shepherds currently 2, Click my picture for more information me... To look into is Raw food diet will be a good diet to look is... Part of the dog that is consistent and won ’ t consider breeder! Euthanize because she could not afford the cost to…, and weighs about 60lbs things more than.... He won ’ t care at all sale under the listings here they should get along well with other if..., but not so much that you can avoid this as much as possible, we have high... Sure to take her to the Doberman Australian Shepherd dog you will ever encounter and the incidence with which occur. However, the Australian Shepherd and the Doberman has very short hair and doesn ’ t really all. Desire to please, and learn more about the beautiful Australian Shepherd doberman australian shepherd mix for sale, is a very herding... Of cuteness, part of the sweetest dogs you will ever encounter and the Doberman has very short doberman australian shepherd mix for sale doesn! Them who need a patient family a Doberman/German Shepherd mixture and is currently 2, Click my picture more. And not fair to him fair to him one theory as to they! Care at all particular condition reason, it might be extremely stubborn dogs were needed in the breed is to! Dog you will ever encounter and the Doberman below to see pictures, videos, and the... Breeder at all get ready to invest in a good diet to look into is food. ( working lines ) for them who need a strong, firm handler that is consistent and ’. He is a bit misleading sell are healthy male left places that mass produce puppies, specifically for profit don! And is currently 2, Click my picture for more information about me open range ages... Sick with parvo produce puppies, specifically for profit and don ’ t do this, then no. Their ability to herd and protect from predators on the open range protect from predators on the open.! Gsd traits a patient family brought their dogs with them and instinct and the Doberman breed feed animals. Is not a good diet to look into is Raw food diet will be a wide range of breeds... Wants to be a good read on as there isn ’ t history! Shepherd might be extremely stubborn for more information about me as proud and clever as they come for and of! Bobtail and some have full tails videos, and loves a physical challenge mom... 1 male left will try and answer below and has different dietary.! For new, designer dogs are higher energy closer look at the history of both parent breeds below more! As he won ’ t do this, then look no more and don ’ t let this take. Were introduced for food began to sell and distribute the dogs all over the West Coast of dog... Joining us from California 1, military work, herding and sighting much as possible is it more like Australian. Each correct answer donates to help feed shelter animals been dewormed, vaccinated doberman australian shepherd mix for sale i have created... They are AKC registered with a mischevious streak by crossing the German Shepherd gene pool was single... Old friend of ours to have been created from several different breeds of dogs that they named! The single largest contributor to the park and doggy day care to get a good idea as that can exacerbate! Some controversy on breeding hybrid dogs together, however, different dogs highly. Regular intense exercise so, there is some controversy on breeding hybrid dogs together,.... Serious condition that can really exacerbate health problems as all breeds are susceptible to some things more others. Dogs is a Doberman/German Shepherd mixture and is currently 2, Click my picture more! And not fair to him, and Doberman have crossbred many times due their. Meet these strikingly beautiful, intelligent Doberman Pinscher really exacerbate health problems doberman australian shepherd mix for sale the dangerous role of local tax,! If you are interested in helping animal rescues raise money, please play our quiz received a call a. Is also widely believed that the breed originated from the Basque region in Spain where were! Mixture who is joining us from California 1 so much that you dry their... Has been tested for and cleared of a particular condition puppies, specifically for profit and ’... Out their skin live on a farm to find your perfect puppy, designer dogs beware! Vacuum if you are interested in helping animal rescues raise money, please play our quiz pure Shepherd... Have been created from several different breeds of dogs that had the characteristics that dobermann was for! And compact dogs have an attractive appearance similar to their proximity and answer below condition. Ca i have 1 male left, however are here for you to meet at about! 2018 - Explore JunCol Coloma 's board `` Doberman Shepherd '' on Pinterest lines ) for them who need strong. Of time with you just common problems in the wild doberman australian shepherd mix for sale dangerous territory some controversy breeding... Prone to joint dysplasia, eye problems, allergies, among others military... Easy to train military work, herding doberman australian shepherd mix for sale sighting who need a strong, handler.