Cheltenham: Elgar; 2004. International Journal of Integrated Care, 2018; 18(1): 1–14. Leadership media refer to the structures and processes making things happen in an integrated care network [27, 28]. To consider these articles, a third category called “leadership practices” was developed, a term signifying a recursive relationship between social structure and action [31]. The influence of governmental policy on community health partnerships and community care networks: An analysis of three cases. A map of the field of leadership in integrated care networks (including double counts). Integrated care systems and nurse leadership There will be significant changes to the way in which primary and community health services are provided in the wake of the NHS Long Term Plan published in January 2019. Milbank Quarterly, 1999; 77(1): 77–110. Bmc Public Health, 2015; 15(613): 1–14. The Integrated Care Leadership Network (ICLN) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit funded in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.67. Sydow J, Schüssler E, Müller-Seitz G. Managing inter-organizational relations: Debates and cases. View biographies. This definition suits to this study because it addresses multiple levels of analysis, outcomes of care and inter-organisational collaboration. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2006.11.001, Glendinning C. Breaking down barriers: Integrating health and care services for older people in England. It describes, with concrete examples, the three elements of integrated service: primary community care, agency integration, and core services. Strategic Management Journal, 2008; 29(13): 1465–1474. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(97)10053-3, Bistaraki A, McKeown E, Kyratsis, Y. Sample sizes in empirical papers range from single case studies to 104 networks. At the policy level, research is concerned with the activities of governments and health departments in advancing integrated care networks [59, 60, 61, 62]. At the network level, research addresses the activities of network leaders [88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93]. 2020;20(3):6. International Journal of Integrated Care, 2010; 101–14. The methodology used in this paper is informed by guidelines for the conduct of reviews [32, 33, 34, 35] and similar review articles [36, 37]. First, leadership can make a difference. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 2011; 80(8): 178–188. Bmc Family Practice, 2012; 13(36): 1–11. Most studies target the network level, analysing how leadership affects network structures and the coordination of network activities. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1356182021000044166, Grimshaw D, Rubery J, Marchington M. Managing people across hospital networks in the UK: Multiple employers and the shaping of HRM. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-09-2017-0907, Kurunmaki L, Miller P. Regulatory hybrids: Partnerships, budgeting and modernising government. by drawing on the definitions of integrated care, networks, and leadership as outlined above) and inductively (e.g. Development of a program for tele-rehabilitation of COPD patients across sectors: Co-innovation in a network. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-9-32, Lin CH, Lin IC, Roan JS, Yeh, JS. Further positions will be announced in due course. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/hpm.2680, Lukeman S, Davies B, McPherson C, Etowa J. While a broad range of synonyms was used to include as many studies as possible, the search was narrowed with the term “inter-organisational” (and related synonyms) to exclude inter-personal, intra-organisational and other forms of networks. ), Research in organizational behavior, 1990; 295–336. Reducing readmissions to detoxification: An interorganizational network perspective. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008593, Van Haute D, Roets G, Alasuutari M, Vandenbroeck M. Managing the flow of private information on children and parents in poverty situations: Creating a panoptic eye in interorganizational networks? Leadership competencies for implementing planned organizational change. Health Education & Behavior, 2016; 43(6): 674–682. In addition, further research should be undertaken to better understand these actors’ activities and practices. Governance for health and wellbeing in the English NHS. Health Care Management Review, 2014; 39(2): 102–110. Considering these calls, this literature review builds on Huxham and Vangen [27, 28], who define network leadership as being concerned with the “mechanisms that ‘make things happen’” [27, p. 415]. The next two sections define key terms, delineate conceptual boundaries and describe the methods used for conducting this review. In N. Anderson, D. S. Ones, H. K. Sinangil, & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.). Owusu NO, Baffour-Awuah B, Johnson FA, Mohan J, Madise NJ. They find that, depending on the time and issue at hand, governments need to strike a balance between relying on autonomous interactions among network members and intervening hierarchically. Goodwin N, Stein V, Amelung V. What is integrated care? International Journal of Medical Informatics, 2017; 97: 247–260. both within and across organisations over time, boundary spanners generate virtuous cycles in the development of network structures. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.01.006, Wright ER, Shuff IM. While this focus on impact factors has limitations, it provides access to state-of-the-art and peer-reviewed knowledge and has become common practice in similar reviews [e.g. For instance, a recent study by Embuldeniya et al. Health Services Research, 2018; 53(5): 3416–3436. Health Promot Int, 2015; 30(4): 868–880. Medical Care Research and Review, 2015; 72(6): 665–686. Public Health, 2019; 166: 19–24. The majority of work focuses on outcomes at the network level. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.649, Bode I, Firbank O. find that favourable network outcomes depend on higher network density without elucidating how actors increase the number of network connections [75]. 2020;20(3):6. At the same time, they depend on the approval and participation of provider organisations in the field, which require inclusive processes of problem setting, direction setting and re-structuring [61]. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Handbook Integrated Care Others point to potential drawbacks of this governance mode, showing how it may lower network members’ citizenship and behavioural commitment [63]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2975/35.3.2012.265.272, Jain KM, Maulsby C, Kinsky S, Khosla N, Charles V, Riordan M, et al. Organizing AIDS service consortia: Lead agency identity and consortium cohesion. Moreover, they show that “the government” is not a unity but involves a broad range of political and administrative actors whose activities are misaligned and need to be coordinated. Strategic Management Journal, 1992; 13: 163–182. While some researchers recommend dispensing with dedicated network coordinators to encourage fluid and migratory responsibilities [13], others argue that these coordinators play a key role in managing the process and building trust and relationships across organisations [86]. These actors are able to exert influence because they are authorised to initiate integrated care networks and are usually not considered as competitors by service providers [59, 60]. In V. E. Amelung, J. Sydow, & A. Windeler (Eds.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2014.09.016, Cristofoli D, Markovic J. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2016. NSW Health is delivering integrated care strategies and plans to enable transformation of the NSW Health system as part of Australia's long term health plan.. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-53600-2_1, Uhl-Bien M, Marion R. Complexity leadership in bureaucratic forms of organizing: A meso model. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 2009; 19(4): 769–794. This article reviews research on leadership in integrated care networks. It is when people in your organization are empowered to think, talk, and act based on the same value system. Trust is a prerequisite for network members to express uncertainty [10] and share professional knowledge [71, 73]. (2010). DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.5420, Mitterlechner M. Leadership in Integrated Care Networks: A Literature Review and Opportunities for Future Research. Bmj Open, 2015; 5(11): 1–11. Rosenheck R, Morrissey J, Lam J, Calloway M, Stolar M, Johnsen M, et al. Leadership in organizations. What passes as a rigorous case study? International Journal of Integrated Care. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077558715590233, Gurewich D, Prottas J, Leutz W. The effect of hospital ownership conversions on nonacute care providers. The full texts of the 104 remaining articles were reviewed with regards to how they corresponded to the definitions of leadership in integrated care networks as outlined above. Third, the leadership challenge is exacerbated by the way health and social care services are provided. It shows that integrated care networks depend on credible and committed “network champions” who promote collaboration to other network members and stakeholders at the policy level [90, 91, 92, 93]. Authors: Monica Duncan. Future research could explore how actors cope with inherent tensions, assuming that persistent contradictions between opposite elements are both media and consequences of leadership in integrated care networks. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/padm.12192, Chang HH, Hung CJ, Huang CY, Wong KH, Tsai YJ. Health Affairs, 2008; 27(3): 759–769. Maneuvering between networks to lead: A longitudinal case study in the semiconductor industry. Health and Social Care in the Community, 2019; 27: 1019–1030. International Journal of Integrated Care, 2011; 11(e122): 1–9. November 2019; British journal of community nursing 24(11):538-542; DOI: 10.12968/bjcn.2019.24.11.538. Workforce shortages are making this even harder. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2018.09.031, Morgan S, Pullon S, Garrett S, McKinlay E. Interagency collaborative care for young people with complex needs: Front-line staff perspectives. These practices are situated in histories of existing cultures of clinician engagement and established partnerships. Continuity in health care: Lessons from supply chain management. ), The SAGE handbook of organization studies. Paradox research in management science: Looking back to move forward. Theory and methods: Analysing 73 studies published in leading academic journals, this paper consolidates research on leadership media, practices, activities and outcomes, covering the network, policy and organisation levels of analysis. Specifying the integration of mental-health and primary health-care services for persons with HIV AIDS: The Indiana integration of care project. Systems analysis of collaboration in 5 national tobacco control networks. Public Money & Management, 1999; 19(4): 15–22. In terms of methods, most studies are qualitative (41). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.12824, Provan KG, Kenis, P. Modes of network governance: Structure, management, and effectiveness. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-200107001-00003, Alidina S, Rosenthal M, Schneider E, Singer S. Coordination within medical neighborhoods: Insights from the early experiences of Colorado patient-centered medical homes. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 2007; 40(4): 429–437. At the organisation level, integrated care networks rely on the presence of motivated top managers with a vision of how their respective organisations gain from integrating care [8, 44, 103, 104]. Not logged in International Journal of Integrated Care, 20(3), p.6. 2020. Future research could explore how leadership is related not only to the network itself, but also to patients’ experiences of care, population health outcomes, per capita spending and caregivers’ satisfaction, and how these outcomes enable and constrain subsequent leadership practice. International Journal of Integrated Care, 2013; 13(3): 1–10. What leaders really do. The iCMP is one of many programs available through the primary care practices at Mass General. Others describe how integrated care networks are constrained by the absence of supportive legislation [45] or legislation contradicting the development of locally useful solutions [46]. The developing Gold and ICS leadership team is an iterative and evolving process that needs to align with other elements of ICS design that are on-going including developing Strategic Commissioning, the potential provider alliance and local borough integrated care partnerships. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2003.11.005, Larsson LG, Back-Pettersson S, Kylen S, Marklund B, Gellerstedt M, Carlstrom E. A national study on collaboration in care planning for patients with complex needs. Integrated care: Meaning, logic, applications, and implications – A discussion paper. Other studies contribute to this perspective by showing how networks are formed and sustained through practices of co-creating [79], planning [80], sharing information [85], managing performance [81, 82] and learning [83, 84]. To study the topic, researchers use various theoretical lenses. Fourth, it includes multiple directions and covers vertical, horizontal, cross-sectoral or population-centred networks [1]. Around the globe, policy makers and service providers view collaboration in inter-organisational networks as a promising approach for improving health systems [1, 2, 4]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301842, Kominis G, Dudau, AI. Moreover, research shows that successful networks are not static but evolve dynamically, which requires ongoing leadership attention over time [18]. While these tensions interrupt routine, raise ambiguity and may lead to conflict, they are also important sources of change, providing practitioners with occasions for “reflexive structuration” [23]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02106686, Luke DA, Harris JK, Shelton S, Allen P, Carothers BJ, Mueller, NB. Den Hertog, F., Groen, M., & Weehuizen, R. (2005). 10th ed., New York: Free Press; 1950. The search was restricted to peer-reviewed articles in English-language journals. Given sufficient public funding, activity coordination is enabled by centralised governance combined with a strong exercise of leadership activities (see next section) or shared governance combined with adequate governance processes [11]. They tend to argue for shared governance in which activities are coordinated by all network members [45]. Besides governance structures and processes, studies examine the role of trust among network members [10, 12, 41, 48, 70, 71, 72, 73]. International Journal of Integrated Care, 2016; 16(1): 4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mum015, Exworthy M, Powell M, Mohan J. Analysts also study the impact of network structures [63, 74, 75, 76], arguing that networks rely on network efficiency and density [63, 75, 76]. shows how actors achieve integration by generating connectivity and consensus. Fewer studies use quantitative (17), mixed (11) or non-empirical conceptual (4) methods. Sport Management Review, 2019; 22(1): 142–152. Leadership in Integrated Care Networks: A Literature Review and Opportunities for Future Research. Regarding the latter, research reveals how networks rely on the availability of communication instruments like coordinating councils [65], information technology [49, 64], regular network meetings [11, 68], cross-organisational teams [69] and board interlocks [63]. At the policy level, the importance of public governance structures, i.e. Building on these valuable insights, further work could develop a deeper understanding of leadership activities, practices and outcomes across different levels, including the policy and organisation levels of analysis. This work is crucial to our understanding of how these structures and processes enable and constrain integrated care networks. International Journal of Management Reviews, 2012; 14: 428–443. Appendix 1 provides an overview of the search strings used. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19416520.2016.1162422. A naturalistic study of MST dissemination in 13 Ohio communities. Moreover, several studies provide insights into how integrated care networks are enabled and constrained by government legislation [7, 44, 45, 46, 47]. BMC Health Serv Res, 2017; 17(149): 1–14. Future research could usefully provide a fuller picture by examining leadership practices, activities and outcomes at the policy and organisation level, integrating advances in the wider leadership literature. Compare pay for popular roles and read about the team’s work-life balance. More than three out of four articles (57/73) have been published since 2009. Simmel G. The sociology of Georg Simmel. Management Accounting Research, 2012; 23(2): 142–155. In addition, the paper acknowledges that integrated care networks are not isolated systems but situated in a policy and member organisation level [23]. Others, however, caution that even in communities with high levels of social capital, organisations are less like to engage in networks if they do not trust one another or have divergent organisational agendas [57]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/HMR.0b013e31828c8b76, Retrum JH, Chapman CL, Varda DM. Den Hartog, D. N., & Koopman, P. L. (2011). ICM TOC further builds upon the Joint Commission’s seven foundations of safe care transitions and defines the specific ICM practices that … Reflexive means that practitioners accept tensions as the basic condition of their work and take precautions that the intended structuring works, for example by remaining alert to contradictory structures and processes, by exploring synergies between competing demands, by reframing tensions, and replacing either-or-assumptions with both-and-alternatives [29]. And the challenges they have faced governments in building an integrated care, shows! Cy, Wong KH, Tsai WP, Berwick DM, Nolan TW, Whittington J theory... 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